Polisentris perkembangan Pentakostalisme: Sebuah kajian retrospektif dari gereja abad kuno hingga pertengahan

Anggi Maringan Hasiholan


Pentecostals are multiplying in quantity due to the socio-cultural context in which they grow. This development occurred in the Southern part of the world, namely Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The World South displays a unique and different Pentecostal spirituality from the 1906 Azusa Street incident. This difference provokes a search for the roots of Pentecostalism besides Azusa Street. That is why a polycentric approach is needed in tracing the history of the Pentecostal church. This study aims to examine Azusa Street retrospectively from ancient to medieval churches. The research method used is qualitative with a historical approach. The study results show that a spirituality similar to Pentecostalism has spanned from ancient to medieval church history practiced by certain groups and people. However, their influence to become the beginning of the classical Pentecostalism movement was not decisive because the praxis shown did not have a significant effect and did not shake the social life of the community where their spirituality was born. In conclusion, the differences in the praxis of Pentecostalism in Latin America, Africa, and Asia show other roots outside Azusa Street.


Kaum Pentakostal berkembang dengan sangat cepat dalam kuantitas karena konteks sosial-budaya dimana mereka bertumbuh. Perkembangan ini terjadi di dunia bagian Selatan, yaitu Amerika Latin, Afrika, dan Asia. Dunia Selatan menampilkan spiritualitas Pentakostal yang unik dan berbeda dengan peristiwa Azusa Street 1906. Perbedaan ini memancing penelusuran mengenai akar-akar Pentakostalisme selain Azusa Street. Itu sebabnya, diperlukan pendekatan polisentris dalam menelusuri sejarah gereja Pentakostal. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji retrospektif Azusa Street dari gereja abad kuno hingga abad pertengahan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kualitatif dengan pendekatan sejarah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa spiritualitas yang mirip dengan Pentakostalisme telah terbentang dari sejarah gereja abad kuno hingga pertengahan yang dipraktikkan oleh kelompok dan orang tertentu. Namun, pengaruh mereka untuk menjadi awal pergerakan Pentakostalisme klasik tidak kuat karena praksis yang ditunjukkan tidak berpengaruh besar dan tidak mengguncang kehidupan sosial masyarakat tempat spiritualitas mereka lahir. Kesimpulannya, perbedaan praksis Pentakostalisme di Amerika Latin, Afrika, dan Asia menunjukkan bahwa terdapat akar-akar lain di luar Azusa Street.


Azusa street; pentecostalism; polycentric; retrospective; pentakostalisme; polisentris; retrospektif

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.30995/kur.v9i1.592


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